"Mind Control"

The CIA and Military Mind Control Research
Building the Manchurian Candidate

A lecture by Dr. Colin Ross, 1997

Part Two


CONCLUSIONS: In the opinion of the Artichoke Team the operation was profitable and successful. In this case the subject was aware that he had been given certain types of solutions but as to what he had been given or amounts given, he had no knowledge. Checks were made by ___ and later ____ and apparently indicated that the subject, although not having specific amnesia for the Artichoke treatment, nevertheless was completely confused and his memory was vague and faulty. This vagueness and failure of memory was intensified by the _____ explanation that the subject had been dreaming an opinion which it appeared the subject shared in part." Ross: So that's obviously operational use of sophisticated mind control amnesia inducing and false memory implanting techniques in the USA in the 1950's by the CIA. It's part of a broad program of mind control research, experimentation and operational use which included the creation of Manchurian Candidates. So this is why I say that I conclude that it's an established fact that the CIA and the military have been creating Manchurian Candidates for operational use since World War II at least into the 1950's, and that it's not plausible denial in my mind to claim that it all stopped in 1973.

How did this whole network get constructed, and how does it work and how is it supported? I think that the Intelligence Community itself is a polyfragmented entity with Dissociative Identity Disorder, and that there is no single Executive Host Function. There is no little where everybody has it all planned out and under control. That it works sort of as Neural Network with no Executive Host Function, and that these Old Boys talk to these Old Boys who know this, who don't know this, know that, it's this kind of Network Model and that's what you see on the slide. And all these slides are going to look like this. I am going to walk you now through all these interconnections in this Network as I said all of which are documented, and tell you about some of the history, and talk about some of the ethical problems that arise. As a matter of general background now, this slide is called "Funding Fronts for CIA Mind Control Research". MKULTRA, you have already seen, was from 1953 to 1963. The major funding fronts for MKULTRA were the Human Ecology Foundation that Carl Rogers was on the Board of; the Josiah Macey Jr. Foundation, and the Geshickter Fund. Charles Geshickter was one of the MKULTRA contractors himself.

So what happened was the CIA would have its budget who would pop money over to the Human Ecology Foundation ... HEF would put out a call for grants and people would then submit applications. So it looks like a normal funding foundation, and some people were unwitting and just thought they were applying for a grant, and other people knew perfectly well there was a front, the technical terms for these kinds of funds was a "Cutout". HEF, Josiah Macey Jr. and Geshickter were CIA cutouts. This Geshickter Fund was interesting. One of the MKULTRA projects that they funded was the construction of the Gorman Annex at the George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C. You have to remember that the military and the CIA are federal bureaucracies. You anticipate the behaviour of federal bureaucracies in general when you are looking into their history and operations. So what they did was through MKULTRA they funded to Geshickter who then funded out to the contractor money to build the Gorman Annex as an addition to the hospital. Since this was money coming from a private foundation, it generated matching funds from another sector of the federal government. So the CIA got to double its budget by sucking its money out of unwitting civilian areas of the federal purse.

What was the Gorman Annex for? It was for mind control experimentation on terminal cancer patients. Three career officers, CIA biochemists, were employed at the Gorman Annex under full cover. This is not completely above board and ethical behaviour. So Carl Rogers who is on the board of the Human Ecology Foundation is himself an MKULTRA contractor and his specific projects have got this MKULTRA grant application ... I've got him on the Board of the HEF, I've got the description of his project that was funded through MKULTRA, and I've got the publication flowing from the project that exactly matches the grant application, and in the published paper, he acknowledges funding from the Human Ecology Foundation. So it's a completely documented closed loop.

MKULTRA connects itself up to Allen Dulles which connects us back to Human Ecology over to Harold Wolff and back to Allen Dulles. How does that work? Allen Dulles was the Director of the CIA from 1953 to 1961. He has the longest-running tenure as DCIA-Director of Central Intelligency Agency. In World War II he was employed by the OSS - Offices of Strategic Services - which is the pre-cursor of the CIA which was run by a guy called Wild Bill Donovan. He was stationed in Switzerland and was heavily involved in, obviously since the enemy was the Germans and the allies were the Russians, in the War he was supposed to be working with the Russians against the Germans which he did. However, when you read the history of the OSS in World War II, in the last years of the War, the Cold War was already being deliberately planned out and set up by the Intelligence Agencies, and it was already apparent to the Intelligence Agencies that things were going to flip - that Germany would become the Allies an d Russia would become the enemy. There was an awful lot of jockeying about whether the Germans were going to surrender in North Italy before the Russians got to Yugoslavia - so there were now negotiations with the Germans - because if they agreed to surrender early - before the Russians got there - then there would be such-and-such a payoff which would secure the area for the Allies so they wouldn't be taken over by the Russians.

There was all this jockeying going on, all this intrigue, communications between the OSS and some of Hitler's generals. The arch-enemy spymaster, who Allen Dulles was fighting against was Reinhard Gehlen who was head of German Intelligence in the Eastern Front, which means Russia. At the end of World War II, Allen Dulles recruited Reinhard Gehlen to become the Head of that Division of the CIA's operations against Russia. This is a totally established fact. Harold Wolff who was the Head of the Human Ecology Foundation, was a neurologist at Cornell. When Allen Dulles' son received a head wound in the Korean War, he was brought back to the USA and treated by Harold Wolff. You start to get a feel for why I call this an Old Boys' Network. Let's come down here to MKULTRA-we're over at hallucinogens. A lot of MKULTRA subprojects had to with funding LSD and other hallucinogens. A person who did a lot of hallucinogen research and published a lot of hallucinogen research was Daniel Friedman. Hallucinogen research also connects us down to Loretta Bender. Loretta Bender is the much-revered author of "The Bender Gestalt". Now look at these three names: Loretta Bender, Paul Hawk and Ewen Cameron. You will see that each of these names (they are all supposed to connect to the American Journal of Psychiatry obituaries). Ewen Cameron, Paul Hawk and Loretta had their obituaries in the American Journal of Psychiatry.

Allen Dulles did hallucinogen research in New York for the military, and it had one unfortunate side effect - he killed Harold Blauer(sp) a tennis pro, in 1953, with an injection of Army mescaline and the family was eventually compensated for that. He's big-time connected into all the hallucinogen research by the military, CIA, and he's at many different CIA-sponsored conferences. Ewen Cameron, former Head of the Quebec Psychiatric Association, the Canadian Psychiatric Association, the American Psychiatric Association, the World Psychiatric Association - in fact, the founder of the World Psychiatric Association - and also one-time President of the Association for Biological Psychiatry. As politically connected a guy as ever existed in the entire field of psychiatry in the 20th Century, with his obituary in the American Journal of Psychiatry, funded through MKULTRA and Human Ecology Foundation, did LSD and other hallucinogen research funded by Canadian military and the CIA and was successfully sued (he had already died) - the CIA settled out of court actually - it wasn't a successful suit technically - with eight of his patients who had been victims of experimentation that was first funded directly by the CIA through the Human Ecology Foundation and then through the Canadian government. One of his papers, published in the American Journal of Psychiatry is on Psychic Driving, another is on Production of Differential Amnesia in Schizophrenia.

Let's look at the network for both the creation of Manchurian Candidates and the denial of the existence of Manchurian Candidates. How's that structured? You would think it might be logical to have a disinformation program in place. Like any complex system, it's sort of arbitrary where you enter the system. Let's enter at MKULTRA which we saw is connected to Bluebird and Artichoke - both of those are connected to the CIA. The CIA is highly connected to the military intelligence structurally (committees, cross-references, cooperation in many of these documented mind control research projects). In the Senate Committee Hearings in the 1970's on MKULTRA, John Gittinger who was the head Ph.D. psychologist in MKULTRA testified that the creation of Manchurian Candidates and the movie, The Manchurian Candidate, which were referred to in his testimony, were just fiction, that's ridiculous, and that had never been done. But we see that MKULTRA, on which he was the lead psychologist, was actually an administrative rollover from Bluebird and Artichoke-we have just read material in which they are explicitly describing clear creation of Manchurian Candidates so it's not possible that he didn't know that.

The options here are either he was so out of it that he didn't realize that was Manchurian Candidates that were being created there, or he was somehow administratively out of the loop and never even looked at the Bluebird and Artichoke documents which is fairly unbelievable, or it is deliberate disinformation. Let's go from the CIA here over to military intelligence over to Estabrooks. We've got Estabrooks actually creating Manchurian Candidates. So that's Manchurian Candidate creation which goes back to Bluebird and Artichoke. We've got that loop already discussed.

Let's hop from CIA to Martin Orne. Well, we saw in the original list of MKULTRA consultants that Martin Orne was funded through that, and had top-secret clearance. When you look at Martin Orne's C.V.-he lists in his C.V. numerous military intelligence funding sources (virtually all branches of the military) and he, in his publications, cites funding by Air Force, Army (I am pretty sure), Office of Naval Research, and Human Ecology. A reliable source informed me that he also consulted with the National Security Agency. He basically has consulted with all branches of the military intelligence and civilian intelligence network. He also has taken the position, since at least 1984 in public, that MPD is almost al ways an iatrogenic artifact . He has debated this vociferously at the APA annual from 1988 on, and has published a large discussion and commentary on this in the International Journal of Clinical Experimental Hypnosis. His basic position is that MPD is created by the therapist.

Now why would Martin Orne think this, and believe this, when he is totally connected into military intelligence? He is one of the leading experts in hypnosis, he is a friend and correspondent of and has been edited by and he references G.H. Estabrooks who was also one of the leading hypnosis experts at the same time, who was also tightly tied into military intelligence-and Estabrooks knows those other people like Milton Erickson and Hilgaard(sp) who are all totally interconnected by their common work and references. Well, Martin Orne might believe that all the civilian DID cases are actually iatrogenic DID because that is the universe he has grown up in. He can't step outside his own knowledge of the creation of Manchurian Candidates by the military to conceive of the idea that it might arise naturalistically.

Where does that take us down to? That takes us down to Manchurian Candidate Denial. That is done specifically by Richard Ofshe, who is a Scientific Advisory Board member of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation. In his book, "Making Monsters" where he ridicules me as a CIA conspiracy nut who believes that the CIA has been creating MPD (which in fact is a documented fact). Let's skip back to here. We're at the CIA and we're at MKULTRA, we're missing another connection here. It should go MKULTRA to Joly West, but ... the CIA connects to Joly West because he was funded under MKULTRA to study the psychobiology of dissociation. He will probably go down in history as the only person to kill an elephant at Oklahoma City Zoo with LSD. Well, Joly West is going to show up on a bunch of subsequent slides. What we're looking at is two-dimensional slices of a three- or end dimensional space. So you are going to see Joly West connect out to here, and off the screen, and up and down and around the back of the screen, and so on. One place that he connects if from here to here. Now, where did Joly West start off in his professional career? He started off as a Top Secret cleared guy for the Air Force who interviewed the American pilots who came back from Korea having been captured and brainwashed by the Communist Chinese.

Now why do I have Johns Hopkins connected to MKULTRA? Because a prior Chairman of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins named James Whitehorn was on the Advisory Board of the Human Ecology Foundation. He had Top Secret Clearance and was Witting. The Human Ecology Foundation was actually a funding front for MKULTRA. So one of his immediate predecessors was directly in network with Top Secret Clearance. The research in his c.v. - and I haven't actually got the papers out and read it - that he did in the military doesn't look like mind control research. But this is the network for the creation and the denial of the creation of the Manchurian Candidate.

Let's take a look at the relations between the Cult Awareness Network and the FMSF Scientific Advisory Board.

CAN means the Cult Awareness Network, CIA means the Central Intelligence Agency, and FMSF means the False Memory Syndrome Foundation. Joly West is on the Boards of CAN and FMSF and is connected to the CIA. Margaret Singer is connected to Joly West and Richard Ofshe. Margaret Singer and Joly West are on the Board of CAN and Richard Ofshe is on the Board of FMSF. Joly West and Margaret Singer worked for Air Force Intelligence talking to those downed American pilots who were actually DDNOS level Manchurian Candidates. Leo Ryan, and we're going to hear a bunch about Jonestown in a minute, is the Congressman who was killed at the airport in Jonestown at the same time as the mass suicide there, which was not actually a suicide. His daughter, Patricia Ryan, is very active in CAN and recently received a Leo Ryan Award, so Leo Ryan connects to Jonestown, Jonestown connects up to the CIA through that loop because CAN is interested in destructive cults and coercive persuasion, and I am going to show you on subsequent slides the connections between Jonestown and the CIA. Jonestown connects down to obviously expertise in cult coercive persuasion techniques. Jim Jones was a big expert. That takes us back up to Joly West, Margaret Singer, Richard Ofshe, Air Force Intelligence, the CIA.

So all this interconnects here. Who is this guy Robert Heath? Well, we are going to talk more on him later. My secretary has actually interviewed him, and I might go down and interview him myself at Tulane in New Orleans. He did brain electro implant research for the CIA and he would put brain electrodes in human brains for non-therapeutic purposes, and he would pour in psyllicibin(sp), mescaline, LSD, and other chemicals to see what would go tingle-tingle in the electrodes. And I will tell you more about that. He's funded by the CIA and the military. In one of his papers, he thanks Harold Lief for referring in one of his brain electrode implant research subjects. Harold Lief is on the Advisory Board of the FMSF, and in fact, was personal psychiatrist to the Freyd family. So all these guys know each other. I'm just giving you kind of a sketch of how this thing is constructed.

This is the connections between Jonestown and the CIA. This is based on references. Now according to this book, "Was Jonestown a CIA Medical Experiment?" by Michael Myers, according to him, Jonestown was a CIA medical experiment. It was a mind control research site. So that seems preposterous and impossible to believe. What data and circumstantial evidence add up to that conclusion? Well, we know that Leo Ryan was connected to the CIA. How do we know that? Well, let's take a look over here in our package. Here we have a letter from the Deputy Director of the CIA dated 18 October 1978. To Honorable Leo Ryan, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.: "Dear Mr. Ryan: Thank you for your letter of 27 September to Admiral Turner requesting confirmation or denial of the fact that the CIA experiments using prisoners at the California Medical Facility at Vacaville. MK Search Site Principal Investigator, James Hamilton.

It is true that CIA sponsored tests involving volunteer inmates was conducted at that facility. The project was completed in 1968. A report setting forth the details of that testing has been released to the authorities at Vacaville and to the public. It is enclosed for your information and review ....... The research was related to learning enhancement using a well known hallucinogen, magnesium pemaline (Ross: which is psiler [sp] used for ADD). Your letter referred to Donald Defreeze known as Cinque and Clifford Jefferson, both of whom were inmates at Vacaville. Insofar as our reports reflect the names of the participants, there is nothing to indicate that either was in any way involved in the project. You may wish to contact the authorities at Vacaville for further information." So Leo Ryan was corresponding directly with the CIA about some of its mind control research. He was also the father of pending legislation, by which all CIA covert operations would be subject to direct Congressional oversight from a budgetary point of view.

You have to go a long way out there to get all these connections. Okay, well I'm going to tell you a bunch about Vacaville. So Leo Ryan is really pestering the CIA to get all their covert operations under direct funding oversight and budgetary control of Congress. He is bugging the CIA about their mind control research. He has found out that Donald Defreeze was at Vacaville at the same time it was a research site, we are seeing another document saying that is MKSearch and the investigator is James Hamilton, who had Top Secret Clearance. Also Leo Ryan was involved in Jones town, because he was killed at the airport. Well that's very funny. How does Leo Ryan connect down to Patty Hearst? Patty Hearst was captured by the Symbionese Liberation Army, which was headed by Donald Defreeze whose code name was Cinque. She was found guilty. She was actually a Manchurian Candidate, a DDNOS level Manchurian Candidate, who was captured, if you don't remember the story, she was the daughter of William Randolph Hearst who ran the San Francisco Chronicle who was running a whole lot of critical articles about the People's Temple - Jim Jones' cult while it was still in Ukiah, California. His daughter, Patty Hearst, who was a college student, was captured by the SLA at gunpoint with submachine guns, kept locked in a closet for 42 days, and subjected to very systematic coercive, persuasive brainwashing and mind control techniques, until she adopted a new identity named "Tanya" and lost all emotional connectedness to her prior life and her parents.

She participated in the robbing of a bank and was found guilty. The Free Patty Hearst Movement was headed by Leo Ryan, who was very active in getting clemency for her from the President. How does Patty Hearst connect to Donald Defreeze? Well, he captured her. How does Donald Defreeze connect to Vacaville? Well he was at Vacaville as a prisoner. What is Vacaville? Well, let's hop over here to Joly West. That will help us to figure it out. Joly West was the expert witness in the trial for Patty Hearst. Who were the expert witnesses called to explain to the jury that Patty Hearst was actually a victim of coercive persuasion, mind control and brainwashing ... Joly West, Margaret Singer, Robert Lifton and Martin Orne. So what did Joly West have to do with Vacaville? Joly West was Head of the UCLA Violence Project which was approved by Ronald Reagan when he was Governor of California, then shut down by public protest. It was spearheaded by a number of people including some people who were very interested in the history of CIA military mind control, and have written books about it.

Well the UCLA Violence Project you are going to see in subsequent slides, but it included research and experimentation that was going to be done at Vacaville Prison where they had the maxi-maxi which is the maximum security place for the most freaked out behaviourally disturbed psychotic psychologically difficult inmates in the California prison system which included Donald Defreeze and Charles Manson we hear. Who is Colston Westbrook? According to a book on the Phoenix program which is the CIA's covert operation in the Vietnam War for killing 20 VC infrastructure non-military personnel headed by William Colby, future Director of the CIA. According to that book, Colston Westbrook was a CIA Psy-War expert in Vietnam who came back to the USA to Vacaville Prison under cover of the Black Cultural Association and used behavioural modification techniques on Donald Defreeze and gave him his code name Cinque, and devised the seven headed logo of the Symbionese Liberation Army.

Subsequent to this coercive persuasion work done on Donald Defreeze by this Psy-War expert employed by the CIA in Vietnam. Donald Defreeze was transferred to another location in the jail from which he very easily escaped the next day only to go capture Patty Hearst and use very systematic and sophisticated mind control techniques on her despite the fact that he was a functionally illiterate black person off the streets.

This is some general background now. There is this guy, James Frank, who won the 1925 Nobel Prize in Physics who came over to be part of the Manhattan Project which created the atomic bomb. That is sort of the precursor of the Paperclip Project, which we will get to in future slides. He recruited Lawrence Layton into the Manhattan Project so that's the connection between these people. Now we're going to go to this Layton family. There's Hugo Phillip and Anita Lee Howbwood(sp) married in Germany in 1914 and they moved to the USA. They had two daughters, Eva and Lisa. Eva doesn't really fit into the story. Eva worked for the CIA at Berkeley. The author of this "Jonestown: A CIA Medical Experiment" got all this information from the public records by just piecing it together, bit by bit by bit, and the documentation in their references is pretty solid and convincing. Eva worked for the CIA at Berkeley and her job at the library was to keep track of all the left-wing literature taken out of the library and the names of the people who took those books out and report that to the CIA. Berkeley's got a lot of top-notch people ... such as Richard Ofshe. Lisa married Lawrence Layton who was recruited for the Manhattan Project by James Frank. He later worked at Dugway Proving Ground where radiation experiments were done including release of radioactivity for wind dispersal over civilian populations. He was an expert in dispersal of biological and chemical weapons. That Dugway Proving Ground was also one o f the sites where Army LSD research was conducted.

This couple had four children - Deborah who married Phil Blaikie, Lawrence Jr., Annalisa and Thomas. These two are not so involved in the picture. Lawrence Jr. was on-site at the People's Temple, Lisa was on-site at the People's Temple in Jonestown in British Guyana, Deborah was on-site there and she was the chief financial officer for the People's Temple operation. She left Jonestown shortly before the mass suicide and went back to Georgetown, the capital of British Guyana, accompanied by the CIA Chief of Station for Georgetown. Phil Blaikie was an interesting guy with international arms sales and British Intelligence background if I remember right. This is where it really starts to get convincing and amazing. We have all heard about Jonestown. We all know that Jim Jones had this group of people and he was in Ukiah, California and then all of a sudden he moved to the middle of the jungle in British Guyana. I assume we all had the same sort of experience I had. You just sort of take that at face value. Here's this nut. He moves down to the middle of the jungle in British Guyana. But how did he ever choose this location? Who scouted it out? What about the logistics of getting all the lumber, all the oil drums, all the everything down to the middle of the jungle in British Guyana? You have to build an airport, you have to transport ... this is a huge, huge project. Well, it turns out this wasn't just jungle before the People's Temple arrived.

It was the Shalom Project from 1973 to 1975 and Phil Blaikie oversaw the engineering development of the site in its transition from the Shalom Project to the People's Temple. What was the Shalom Project? It was a CIA operation for training black mercenary guerrillas for operations in Angola. This was a CIA training site. This was not a random, unconnected site. That's just some general background. We're going to pick up Jonestown as we walk along here through these crystal clear slides. Okay, we heard part of the story. Here's J. Edgar Hoover, he's corresponded with Estabrooks who was creating Manchurian Candidates, Patty Hearst is a Manchurian Candidate, her identity of Tanya is deliberately programmed in by Donald Defreeze who is in Vacaville State Prison which was an MKSearch site which is also a site for the UCLA Violence Project, Vacaville is a CIA research site, Patty Hearst is connected down to Joly West who is her expert witness in her trial who says in effect she is a Manchurian Candidate, DDNOS level.

Well, Jim Jones was a good PR guy. When Patty Hearst was kidnapped he offered William Randolph Hearst a program to set up a collection/donation of money to pay the ransom to the SLA. And the SLA was demanding something like $170 million from Hearst for the release of Patty Hearst. Jim Jones offered to set up this fund, but Hearst said no. The next outcome was that the SLA also wanted food donated to poor people that they said they were representing in a revolution. So a committee was set up to do food distribution, financed by William Randolph Hearst. According to this book, the way that food distribution was done was Jim Jones got control of the mechanisms and he brought people down from the People's Temple down to be the homeless and poor people who received the food and the same food was distributed around the network six times, constantly being picked up by new People's Temple people, and taken back to the distribution point. So actually only one-sixth as much food was purchased as it appeared, and the rest was skimmed by the People's Temple. Russell Means was on the committee that oversaw this operation and his wife was bailed out of jail in Oregon the year before at a cost of $19,000 by Jim Jones.

We did Vacaville, MKSearch, that's all connected into Patty Hearst, Donald Defreeze, we've got that part ... MKULTRA connected to UCLA. What does MKULTRA have to do with that Sugi U2 base ... that's the U2 spy plane. Well that's according to information from JFK assassination researchers that I haven't independently confirmed, that was an MKULTRA site, Lee Harvey Oswald was stationed there. U2 was the plane that Gary Powers went down in. It was a spy plane that over-flew the Soviet Union. It was also used for surveillance of Martin Luther King ... that's an acknowledged fact. The FBI used U2 planes to keep track of him.

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